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The Realities of Reality - Part IV: The Reality Behind Achieving World Peace

By Dufour, Fritz

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Book Id: WPLBN0100302355
Format Type: PDF (eBook)
File Size: 2.63 MB.
Reproduction Date: 4/5/2020

Title: The Realities of Reality - Part IV: The Reality Behind Achieving World Peace  
Author: Dufour, Fritz
Volume:
Language: English
Subject: Non Fiction, Political Science, International Relations
Collections: Politics, Authors Community
Historic
Publication Date:
2020
Publisher: Fritz Dufour
Member Page: Fritz Dufour

Citation

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Dufour, F. (2020). The Realities of Reality - Part IV: The Reality Behind Achieving World Peace. Retrieved from http://ipod-library.net/


Description
This book is organized in seven chapters. Chapter one looks at the origins and the causes of war. The chapter argues that war is a consequence of how we, as a species, have evolved. War has both endogenous and exogenous causes. While the former depends on our biology and psychology, the latter has to do primarily with international relations. Chapter two makes the case for the paradoxical nature of war. While war takes lives, it is legitimate under certain circumstances. For example, armed humanitarian interventions are allowed to save lives among local populations at the expense of the oppressors by employing all necessary means – ethical or not. Chapter three asks if peace among nations are achievable, which is the main theme of this book. However, it does not elaborate on the question entirely. Instead, it gives sort of a prelude of what will be discussed in the remaining of the book by talking about the concepts of world order and American hegemony, arms race, and peacebuilding. Chapter four builds on three by looking at realism, idealism, and pacifism in international relations. As to pacifism, the chapter attempts to answer the question, what was the most peaceful time in history? Chapter five presents the elements of hope for world peace by considering the role played by the following: (1) the United Nations; (2) the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO); (3) the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE); (4) the non-governmental organizations (NGOs); (5) the role of nuclear deterrence; (6) globalization; (7) transnationalism; (8) diplomacy; (9) sports; (10) international cooperation in space exploration; (11) the Nobel Prize; and (12) the declining of war and violence in modern times. On the other hand, chapter six presents the opposite argument or the barriers to world peace, using the following points: (1) the proliferation of nuclear weapons; (2) geoeconomics; (3) terrorism; (4) the global refugee crisis; (5) the profitability of arms sales; and (6) the profitability of wars. It makes an interesting argument especially as to the profitability of wars by showing how the United States, first, emerged as an imperial and a world power in the 1890s; then as the only world’s superpower after World War II. Finally, chapter seven takes a proactive approach by peering into the future of armed conflict, which is likely to take place in new environments: Cyberspace, the littoral, choke points, near space, and increasingly in expanding cities or slums War. The chapter concludes with a discussion on the Doomsday Clock, a concept stemmed from the uncertainty as to the future of mankind because of armed conflicts and which is a symbol that represents the likelihood of a man-made global catastrophe.

Summary
This book is organized in seven chapters. Chapter one looks at the origins and the causes of war. The chapter argues that war is a consequence of how we, as a species, have evolved. War has both endogenous and exogenous causes. While the former depends on our biology and psychology, the latter has to do primarily with international relations. Chapter two makes the case for the paradoxical nature of war. While war takes lives, it is legitimate under certain circumstances. For example, armed humanitarian interventions are allowed to save lives among local populations at the expense of the oppressors by employing all necessary means – ethical or not. Chapter three asks if peace among nations are achievable, which is the main theme of this book. However, it does not elaborate on the question entirely. Instead, it gives sort of a prelude of what will be discussed in the remaining of the book by talking about the concepts of world order and American hegemony, arms race, and peacebuilding. Chapter four builds on three by looking at realism, idealism, and pacifism in international relations. As to pacifism, the chapter attempts to answer the question, what was the most peaceful time in history? Chapter five presents the elements of hope for world peace by considering the role played by the following: (1) the United Nations; (2) the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO); (3) the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE); (4) the non-governmental organizations (NGOs); (5) the role of nuclear deterrence; (6) globalization; (7) transnationalism; (8) diplomacy; (9) sports; (10) international cooperation in space exploration; (11) the Nobel Prize; and (12) the declining of war and violence in modern times. On the other hand, chapter six presents the opposite argument or the barriers to world peace, using the following points: (1) the proliferation of nuclear weapons; (2) geoeconomics; (3) terrorism; (4) the global refugee crisis; (5) the profitability of arms sales; and (6) the profitability of wars. It makes an interesting argument especially as to the profitability of wars by showing how the United States, first, emerged as an imperial and a world power in the 1890s; then as the only world’s superpower after World War II. Finally, chapter seven takes a proactive approach by peering into the future of armed conflict, which is likely to take place in new environments: Cyberspace, the littoral, choke points, near space, and increasingly in expanding cities or slums War. The chapter concludes with a discussion on the Doomsday Clock, a concept stemmed from the uncertainty as to the future of mankind because of armed conflicts and which is a symbol that represents the likelihood of a man-made global catastrophe.

Excerpt
Is peace among nations a utopia? Some would say yes, others would say no. In fact, it depends on how one defines peace. Is it the absence of international conflict or war? Is it the absence of violence or fear of violence both at the national and the international levels? Better yet, isn’t violence embedded in our DNA, as a species? Aren’t we doomed to compete for resources, to constantly put our own survival instinct to work? There is a lot of moving parts in the concepts of war and peace, which make both notions ambivalent and, thus, create sort of a dichotomy. The origins of war date back from prehistoric times; and the causes of war are both endogenous and exogenous, meaning war has both biological and international roots. Acknowledging the ambivalence of conflict and peace, scholars – Aquinas being the first – have come up with the concept of Just war, which legitimizes war and armed humanitarian intervention, bringing to bear, in the process, the paradoxical natural of peacekeeping missions. The utopian or the hopeful think that peace among nations is possible because there are numerous elements of hope for world peace such as: the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, globalization, diplomacy, and nuclear deterrence, to name a few. On the other hand, the dystopian or the skeptical think that the barriers to world peace are too serious for world peace to become a reality. They put forth the following: proliferation of nuclear weapons, geoeconomics, terrorism, the global refugee crisis, and the profitability of arms sales and war itself, to name a few. This mix of optimism and pessimism tend to motivate some of us to consider rather the future of armed conflict instead of considering a pipe dream at both ends of the spectrum. This third category of people think that war and conflict will take place in a totally different environment: cyberspace. They think that future wars will not be positional but, instead, will be subnational.

Table of Contents
Acknowledgements………………………………………………………………………………………………….... 4 Introduction….……………...………………………………………………………………………………………….5 CHAPTER 1: The Origins and Causes of War……………….………………………………......................................24 What Is War?................................................................................................……………24 Origins of Wars…………….……………………………………………………............25 Major Causes of War.………………...…………………………………………………30 Endogenous Causes of War: Role of Biology and Psychology……………….. .31 Exogenous Causes of War: Role of International Relations……….…………...34 Power In International Relations………….……………………………………48 Today’s Most Powerful Countries…....……………………….……...53 CHAPTER 2: The Paradoxical Nature of War…………………………………………………………….....………..55 Just War Theory..…………………………………………..…………………..……….57 Armed Humanitarian Intervention……………………………………………...59 The Paradoxical Nature of Peacekeeping Missions: Fighting Fire With Fire……………………………………………………..….62 CHAPTER 3: Is Peace Among Nations Possible or Achievable? ….….……………………………………………..67 World Order / American Hegemony…………………………………………………….68 Arms Race………………………..……………………………………………………...74 Peacebuilding………………………………………...………………………………….79 CHAPTER 4: Realism, Idealism, and Pacifism in International Relations……………………………………………85 Political Realism in International Relations…………….………………………………..86 Political Idealism in International Relations………..…………………………………….88 Pacifism in International Relations.…………………...………………………………….91 In Quest of the Most Peaceful Time in History….………………………………94 Global Peace Index in Modern Times………………………………………….98 CHAPTER 5: Elements of Hope for World Peace.…………………………………….…………………………….103 The United Nations and World Peace.…………………..………………………………103 Role or Functions of the United Nations in Peacekeeping…..…………………104 The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and World Peace…………………….111 The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)…………………….114 Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and Peacebuilding..………………………..118 Role of Nuclear Deterrence in World Peace…………………………...………………..122 Arguments for the Pursuit of Nuclear Weapons……………...………………..126 Globalization and World Peace……………………………….………………………...129 Transnationalism and World Peace………………………...…………………………...133 Diplomacy and World Peace……………………………………………………………137 The Treaty of Versailles Ended World War I But Contributed To World War II……………………………………….....……………………140 Examples of Historic Peace Deals……………………….…………………….142 Use of Military Force When Diplomacy and Threats Fail……………..………145 Role of Sports in World Peace………………………………………………………….149 The Olympic Games…………………………..………………………………153 International Cooperation in Space Exploration May Promote World Peace…………...155 The Noble Peace Prize and World Peace…………………..……………………………160 The Declining of War and Violence In Modern Times Justifies Hope for World Peace Attainment………………………………………………………162 CHAPTER 6: Major Barriers to World Peace………………………………...……………………………………...171 Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons as an Obstacle to World Peace………………………177 Role of Geoeconomics in Global Security………………………………………………181 Land and Natural Resources as Age-old Sources of Armed Conflict………….185 Terrorism as an Obstacle to World Peace……………….………………………………190 The Global Refugee Crisis as an Obstacle to World Peace.……………………………..195 Profitability of Arms Sales as an Obstacle to World Peace……………………………...200 Profitability of Wars as an Obstacle to World Peace…………………………………….206 How the U.S. Emerged as an Imperial and a World Power in the 1890s……….209 How the U.S. Emerged as the Only World’s Superpower After World War II…………………………………………………………….211 CHAPTER 7: The Future of Armed Conflict…………………………...……………………………………………214 The Doomsday Clock………....………………………….……………………………..221 Concluding Remarks….……..………………………………………………………………………………………226 Bibliography and Further Reading…………………………………………………………………………………..240 By the Same Author……………………………………………………………………………….............................258

 

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